UN Women and other entities denounce the low presence of women and inequality between men and women in politics, business, the media, science, culture and sport
Under the slogan “I am from the Equality Generation. For the rights of women”, the international organization promotes actions to achieve gender equality and celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action, “the world’s most visionary agenda for women’s rights and empowerment.”
On the occasion of International Women’s Day of this March 8, the Executive Director of UN Women, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, has indicated that, although there has been progress on gender equality, no country has fully achieved it. “We have not done our best yet. In all countries there are still problems, although many of them are not insurmountable.”
Among the awareness-raising actions, UN Women has disseminated some data reflecting existing gender inequalities still between men and women in fields as diverse as politics, work, the media, culture or sports. Studies from other entities also show that inequality between men and women persists in these areas.
1.Women in politics: one in four parliamentary seats
The representation of women in politics it has doubled in the last 25 years, from 11.7% in 1997 to 24.9% in 2020. However, men still hold three out of four seats in state parliaments, according to data provided by the Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU) as of January 1, 2020 and the Report of the Secretary-General of the United Nations E / CN.6 / 2020/3, cited by UN Women.
In this regard, Mlambo-Ngcuka considers a “proven solution” to introduce mandatory quotas to increase female representation in politics: “About 80 countries have already done so successfully, and some states have cabinets with gender balance and explicitly feminist policies” .
Spain It seems that it advances in the equality of gender in the policy. It currently has a 44% women in Congress and 39% in the Senate, when in 2019 it had 41.1% and 36.8%, respectively, according to data from the IPU.
2. Women in the company: less than 7% in general management
In 2019, women occupied the largest number of CEO positions since 1995, according to the Fortune 500 list produced by the well-known business magazine. In total, 33 women out of a list of 500 people, which is equivalent to 6.6% of the total.
The number of female directors in companies has more than doubled since 2009, when there were only 15 female directors on the Fortune 500 list. Mlambo-Ngcuka believes that the trend is positive, but that it should occur in both the public and private sectors, since “the total percentage of women in management positions continues being 27%, even when there are more women graduating from university. “
Also, the female presence in governing bodies of 128 companies listed on the General Index of the Madrid Stock Exchange has risen from 20.3% to 23.1% from 2018 to 2019, according to the report Women on the Boards of listed companies (2020) from the IESE business school and the consulting firm Atrevia. However, this increase is almost 7 points below the 30% female presence recommended by the National Securities Market Commission.
Regarding the wage gap between men and women, it continues in force both in Spain as in the world. In the country, they charge 29.3% less than they, according to the third edition of the report Wage gap and glass ceiling 2020, prepared by the Technicians of the Ministry of Finance (Gestha).
Gestha’s study also indicates that the wage gap between men and women increases with age, intensifying at the ages where motherhood and care of the elderly are concentrated, so that the most significant differences occur after 36 and 46 years. In addition, the largest salary discrepancies between one and the other are located after the age of 65, an age at which the gap exceeds 11,400 euros.
3. Female journalists in the media; 28% in Spain and 24% in the world
In the field of media, equality between men and women has not progressed. This is stated in the fifth edition of the report The 2015 Global Media Monitoring Project (GMMP), cited by UN Women as the largest study that has been conducted to investigate the characterization, participation and representation of women in the media for 20 years and in 14 countries.
This research by Who Makes the News (WMTN), a portal for applied research on the media worldwide, ensures that female presence in the media is only 24% and that there is a glass ceiling for female journalists in articles and reports in the written press and on television: in 2015, only 37% of stories were authored by women, and this figure had not changed since 2005.
Likewise, the low representation of journalists in traditional media is also reflected in digital media: only 26% of the people who write news and journalistic tweets on the Internet are female authorship. “Among other factors, stereotypes and the considerable under-representation of women in the media play a crucial role in the formation of harmful attitudes, disrespect and violence against women,” notes UN Women.
Image: UN Women
In the case of Spain, 44% of journalists in the written press are women; on radio they represent 59% and on television 64%. These data are also higher than the European average (35%, 44% and 48% respectively), according to the study Spain. Global Media Monitoring Project (2015), prepared by WMTN.
However, when accounting at women as sources of information, their greatest presence is in opinions (43%), sources of personal experience (37%) and news subjects (35%). They have the lowest percentage as experts (9%), and since the media or production companies themselves choose a news expert, they totally make women invisible.
4. Women in science: less than 30% are scientists
Although women have been part of different scientific discoveries throughout history, only 30% of those who research in the world and 35% of students in Science, Technology, Engineering and / or Mathematics (STEM) areas they are women.
Among the data that UN Women collects to demonstrate the lack of female presence in science and recognition of their scientific work, it stands out that, of the 300 people who have received the Nobel Prize, which is awarded annually in recognition of intellectual and academic achievement, only 53 have been women. In addition, only 19 of them have been awarded in the categories of Physics, Chemistry and Physiology or Medicine.
The proportion of women in the research staff as a whole (in full-time equivalent) in Spain has remained stable since 2009 (39%), according to the report Scientists in Figures 2017, prepared by the Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities. In addition, the study indicates that in the research career there is an underrepresentation of women in the highest ranking category, while there is a gender balance in the other research categories, which indicates a vertical gender segregation or “glass ceiling” .
5. Women in culture: fewer nominations and awards,
The women are also underrepresented in the film industry, which is part of the culture and influences cultural perceptions and attitudes towards gender, “and they are fundamental to modify the narrative of the agenda for gender equality”, indicates UN Women.
The lack of recognition of women in the cinema is that, In the 92-year history of the Oscars, only five women have been nominated in the Best Director category.; furthermore, of the five, only one won the award (Kathryn Bigelow). The same happens at the Cannes Film Festival, which in its 72-year history has only awarded a female director, Jane Campion.
In Spain, the female presence in the Spanish Film Academy is only 28%, and in the last Goya Awards there was not a single woman nominated in the seven most important categories.
About, UN Women urges the film industry to encourage more women to have a presence both in front of and behind the screen, in order to “change stereotypical notions of gender and make women’s realities visible”.
6. Women in sport: fewer salaries and fewer trophies
Women are much more visible in sport than ever and the Tokyo 2020 Olympic Games are expected to have an equal presence compared to men in competition. This is important because “sport can inspire change and break gender stereotypes, and that is what women have been doing for decades: demonstrating that they are just as capable, resilient and strong as men, not only physically but also strategically, as leaders and innovators “, argues UN Women.
While the female presence in sport has progressed, women are still excluded from certain sports and receive lower salaries and fewer awards than men globally. An example is the bonuses determined by FIFA in the participation of teams in the last World Cup: the women’s teams were paid $ 30 million and the men’s 400 million.
Apart from the data from UN Women regarding the pay gap in sport, a study prepared by the International Union of Professional Footballers (FIFPro) and the University of Manchester notes that 49% of female soccer players do not get paid to play and 87% will finish their sports career before reaching 25 years of age for the little or no economic remuneration they receive.
In what other areas are there inequalities between women and men? We await your comments.