Anesthetists have several functions; his job is about more than just “putting people to sleep.” In addition to intervening in surgery, they are specialists in long-term pain relief (pain medicine), intensive care and emergency situations, in which they can intervene in resuscitation and advanced life support.
These professionals intervene in both major surgery and minor surgery.
His contact with patients begins with the prior clinical evaluation. They must ensure that the patient is healthy enough to withstand the operation and take into account any risks or difficulties that may arise during the intervention, explain the type of anesthesia to be used and answer the questions that the patient asks.
Anesthetists can administer drugs in a variety of ways, depending on the type of intervention, the patient’s physical condition and preference, as well as the equipment, staff, and other facilities available to the hospital. They will also discuss the benefits and risks of each method.
When it is time for the operation, healthcare personnel take the patient to the anesthesia room, usually on a bed or stretcher. The anesthesiologist is assisted by a specialized nurse or a doctor from the surgery department to prepare the anesthesia. Staff must wear colored overalls and have their hair covered with a “cap.”
The anesthetist then performs a medical examination again. They connect the patient to a physiological monitoring team: they apply adhesive patches to their chest to monitor the heart by electrocardiogram and measure blood pressure and oxygen levels.
Anesthetists administer drugs, salt, sugar or blood through the vein by inserting a cannula into the vein on the back of the hand or arm with the help of a needle.
The procedure followed below varies depending on the type of anesthesia used:
- With local anesthesia a small part of the body is put to sleep. The anesthesiologist gives it by drip, spray, ointment, or injection. The patient remains awake but does not feel pain.
- Regional anesthesia (“blocks”) is used to anesthetize larger or deeper parts of the body. It is given by injection and eliminates pain, although the patient remains awake.
- With general anesthesia the state of controlled unconsciousness of the patient is induced. It is administered injected or through a mask that is placed on the patient, through which they inhale an anesthetic gas and oxygen.
Afterwards, healthcare personnel take the patient to the operating room and transfer him from the stretcher to the operating table. The anesthetist must closely monitor the patient, the monitoring equipment, and the surgical procedure. So it monitors your heart rate, blood pressure, and oxygen readings for any signs of something wrong.
The anesthetist may administer drugs or gas to keep the patient anesthetized, as well as pain relievers, antibiotics, or drugs to relieve nausea. In general anesthesia you can administer muscle relaxants, which stop the patient’s breathing, in which case a respirator is used to act as the patient’s breathing.
After the operation, healthcare personnel take the patient to the resuscitation room, where patients under general anesthesia regain consciousness. A nurse or healthcare worker in the surgery department monitors blood pressure, oxygen levels, and heart rate.
Likewise, anesthetists treat postoperative pain in several ways: with pills, capsules, liquids, and injections.
These patients intervene in various types of operations, depending on the type of hospital. Thus, they work with orthopedic, cardiology, pediatric or traumatology teams, and also with pregnant women who are in labor.