As an educational task, it is intended to “guide for life.” It is, therefore, a basic element for the educational process to be of quality since it will allow: 1) to make an adjustment of the curriculum to the reality of the center, 2) prevent possible learning difficulties, 3) provide students with personal, academic and professional help.
From the legal point of view, already in the LOGSE (General Organic Law of the Educational System) 1990, reference was made to the fact that the educational activity will be developed taking into account, among others, the principle of educational and professional orientation, including in its article 60 the obligation to the Educational Administrations to guarantee an academic, psychopedagogical and professional orientation to the students. This same approach was included in the LOCE (Organic Law on the Quality of Education), which was impregnated by the previous law in this regard.
Thus, orientation will be an integrated element in the curricular practice itself through which it will intervene in 4 areas: professional orientation, orientation of the teaching-learning process, orientation for prevention and development, as well as attention to the diversity.
However, said intervention must be based on a model that serves as a frame of reference to design the action and that allows to face the different guiding actions for the different users in a given context.
There are a wide variety of intervention models in counseling: clinical, consultation, services, programs, technological, psycho-pedagogical, etc …
All of them have the same purpose: to promote the personal and social development of the people on whom they act and the improvement of the social contexts in which these people operate.
Specifically, in our educational system there are two models that guide the guiding action:
– Psychopedagogical model: it seeks a 1) indirect intervention centered on the institution through consultation, 2) group, although it takes into account individualized attention at certain times, 3) internal since it involves the tutor and the rest of the teachers to collaborate with the guidance department and 4) proactive because it is aimed at prevention and development.
– Program Model: the intervention is carried out through planned actions, “programs” that will be carried out from the center or through the teaching tutoring schedule. These programs will be aimed at all students and will be means to favor the development of people in the personal, academic and career fields.
Both orientation models are articulated on 3 levels.
a) At the Classroom level: The tutor will be in charge of the guidance work.
b) At the Center level: The guidance department. The counselor will work on the orientation with all the students of the center.
c) At the Zone level: Educational Guidance Teams. Collaborating in orientation and tutoring activities with other centers.
Ultimately I will highlight the importance of orientation as a process that must be present throughout an individual’s life and therefore in education understood as orientation for life.