In Mexico the school cycles are divided into Basic (Preschool for 2 years, Primary from 6 years of age with a duration of 6 years and Secondary 3 years), a total of 11 years for this cycle. Then comes the Upper Secondary education, the Baccalaureate, which, so far, is not mandatory -although that would help to broaden the coverage spectrum- and has an average duration of 3 years (in this particular case we have two main modalities: a ) Technological Baccalaureate, which prepares for a faster insertion in the labor market, that is, it provides practical or technical tools for the exercise of a trade, which is recently called “skills” to develop a job and, as an outline , is the destiny of those who will not continue studying the next cycle, the professional; b) the Propedeutical Baccalaureate, which prepares to be inserted into one of the professional options offered by the universities, in this option we find those who have a life plan with profession and even higher education in view, who have a slightly better family income and, in general, the schooling of their parents is higher than what they pretend nden enroll in the first option. Then we have Higher Education, the profession, regularly with a duration of 4 to 8 years depending on the chosen career; this followed by masters and doctorates with a duration of 2 and 3 years, respectively.
The situation of young people in Mexico is easy to describe but difficult to explain and much more to assimilate, since poverty, lack of employment, family violence, all of them manifest in the phenomenon of migration and vandalism make our youth an exciting topic.
Let’s take the most recent information in relation to young people, it is the National Youth Survey 2005, carried out by the Mexican Institute of Youth through the Center for Research and Studies on Youth, published in the month of May 2006. The range of The age contemplated for the survey is from 12 to 29 years in the entire territorial extension of the Mexican Republic, the age sub-divisions are 12-14 years, 15-19 (it is the one that we will take for the article), 20- 24 and 25-29 years.
In the 15-19 age range, only 61% of young people study and another 7.5% study and work, leaving 16% who neither study nor work. 37.5% of young people stop studying, mostly between the ages of 15 and 20, that is, when they enter the baccalaureate or undergraduate degree, and women take up to 10 points the percentage over men, and women They stop studying mainly because their parents no longer allow them to continue because they have to take care of a relative (younger siblings, older people) and the men do so because of the need to work or because, literally, “they do not like to study” .
In relation to the first job, both men and women are between the ages of 17 and 18, noting the concern to insert themselves into productive life and at the same time the family pressure to start generating income is noted.
The aspects to work on this map of Mexican youth in regard to educational orientation are:
1. Coverage is not a matter of orientation, but the decision of high school graduates to join a program of Higher Secondary Education must be influenced by the counselor of that level, trying to convince young people of a better perspective level and quality of life if your degree of studies is higher.
2. The participation of parents in the decision to continue studying is crucial, since, in general, they have not accessed high school, so it becomes a double-edged sword, or they want their children to have better opportunities than they do or they show their disinterest in school and turn it into a family culture; In any case, what is required is to have an approach at the same time with the parents to make them notice the difference between continuing their studies or truncating a possible successful career.
3. Tuition, transportation, lodging and food payments are sometimes reasons for dropping out, so it is essential to consult the government programs to support or grant students, which exist in Mexico and in most universities. , and send them the pertinent and timely information so that those who in this case are, successfully complete their passage through high school.
4. Semi-schooled programs, or Semi-presential and distance programs are an alternative for students to be incorporated into the educational system at this level who, for work reasons, cannot do so in a traditional schooled program.
5. The work of the counselor at the individual, group, as well as massive level to publicize the different professional options is of utmost importance at this level, since it is during high school that they decide to withdraw because they do not know what options there are after this level, in addition to being wrong, their choice of career will emigrate to another and thus will only achieve frustration and a very high cost for the state. So the counselor must provide the best information and make the appropriate analysis of the circumstances of each student to ensure that they are perfectly integrated into the career of their first choice.
6. The counselor must sensitize teachers about the characteristic features of the stage of development through which students of this age range go through in order to make them more flexible in their academic requests and in what, on occasions, it shows as authoritarianism. In addition, in the case of my university, teachers do not have a training as such and it is necessary to go through a training process on didactics, teaching strategies and adolescent psychology.
7. Students MUST learn to know each other, to love each other, since most of the problems that arise have to do with low self-esteem and little appreciation of their abilities, since, usually, they come from family environments in which it goes into their heads all the time that they are useless, that they are stupid, that they do not know or cannot do things, etc. -this said by their parents who have little or low cultural and educational level and therefore do not have the linguistic or conceptual background to dialogue- and this causes them to look for unhealthy alternatives to stand out or call attention or ask for help, such as eating disorders, addictions to legal and illegal drugs, video games, sex and who also have behaviors that lead to slow suicide or that are risky to health.
There is a lot of work for the counselor and everything must be done with the greatest possible professionalism since children in search of identity enter this high school level and citizens of the world graduate.