The techniques would be specific activities that students carry out when they learn: repeat, underline, outline, ask questions, deduce, induce, etc. They can be used mechanically.
The strategies are considered guides of actions to be followed. Therefore, they are always aware and intentional, aimed at a goal related to learning.
The strategies are in charge of establishing what is needed to solve the study task well, determining the techniques (diagrams, underlines, repetition of information, mnemonic rules, etc.) most appropriate to use.
A student uses a strategy when he is able to adjust his behavior (what he thinks and does) to the demands of an activity and the circumstances in which it occurs. Therefore, for a student’s performance to be considered as a strategy, it is necessary that:
– Make a conscious reflection on the purpose or objective of the task.
– Plan what you are going to do and how you will carry it out. It is necessary for the student to have a series of resources to choose from.
– Carry out the assigned task or activity.
– Evaluate your performance.
– Build knowledge about in which situations you can reuse that strategy and how it should be used.
Hence, the student must choose, from among their repertoire, the most appropriate learning strategy according to some factors:
1. The learning contents (type and quantity); The strategy used may vary depending on what has to be learned (data, concepts, etc.), as well as the amount of information that must be learned.
two. Prior knowledge you have on the learning content (cultural background you have).
3. The learning conditions:
– Time available to dedicate to the study task.
– Knowledge and awareness that the student has of himself and his capacities and limitations.
– Motivation for the task to learn.
– Personal conditioning factors of the student. (Age, personal-family situation
4. The type of evaluation to which the student is going to be subjected also marks a use of different types of learning strategy. Preparation for a multiple choice exam with answer alternatives will not be the same as for an exam with a topic to be developed or an oral presentation.
In addition, with the introduction of computer systems in all areas of society -including education- and the possibility of accessing information increasingly more accessible, it is necessary to introduce a new factor in learning strategies: handling of that information.
Definitely “learn to learn” currently involves the development of a “competence” for managing the huge amount of information that moves with the appearance of basically computer tools (Internet, multimedia encyclopedias, search engines …) and with substantially different characteristics, since it is about accessing, search, evaluate and organize much more information from very different sources and of a very diverse nature, not only in relation to its content and quality and, therefore, to its degree of credibility, but also in relation to the supports used and the ways in which access to them is possible.
It could be said that the obstacle would not be having information, but rather the need to ensure that students (whatever their characteristics) master new skills and abilities related to the use of these technologies and develop critical attitudes in the face of the enormous volume they receive. , so that they are able to get the best information and for this they must learn or be taught to be critical with the ways, techniques and sources through which they obtained the information.
With the introduction of all these mechanisms, the student has in his possession tools that, a priori, can be positive to support and carry out the study tasks and would not have so much to affect study techniques and to a lesser extent learning strategies, but they can lead to a series of long-term problems that affect these study techniques. For example, when doing a job on a specific subject, the internet gives the opportunity to find all kinds of information and the only thing the student has to do is “cut and paste” , with which all the work of elaboration of said work would be relegated to a simple almost mechanical action. In addition, in the “Network” there are already multiple Web pages where summaries and diagrams of subjects or subjects already appear, eliminating this type of activity from the study task, in addition, a special mention should be made of the increasingly widespread possibility to carry out courses, studies, etc. On-Line, where the relationship that is established both of the subject to study and the possibilities of resolution of doubts, comments, etc. with the teacher, would be totally different from the relationship that arises in the traditional method, based on face-to-face classes.
With all the above, we have to begin to see a substantial modification in everything that refers to the study (including learning techniques and strategies), in some cases to improve (all the possibilities that are opened by having a greater capacity and speed of accessing information), more dynamic resources (eg: multimedia encyclopedias), as a different way of approaching the way of transmitting knowledge (virtual classrooms); all of them are not without risks: lack of involvement on the part of the student if he only uses these methods as a way to avoid a more active work (passivity); Difficulty in discerning when the information is reliable or not and if this information is the only valid one or there are more possibilities …
Therefore, it will not take long to see, in the Study Techniques courses, aspects related to the way of accessing and working the information so that it is profitable for the student and can be used in a positive way, without ever losing sight of the fact that the Study and learning have, as a fundamental element, a conscious and active character on the part of the student-student and this characteristic can never be lost and it will be necessary to try to incorporate new technologies for this purpose.