A suitable teaching strategy it does not guarantee immediate success, but it allows to lay the foundations for medium and long-term learning, since it teaches the student how to learn.
In general, we can differentiate between three types of teaching strategies:
- Pre-instructional strategies. They establish a context for the student in which he approaches what he is going to learn and the method he is going to use for it. It is the point at which the objectives to be achieved at the end of the study process are set, be it an educational cycle, a complete course or a shorter period of time. Also included here are methods such as ‘brainstroming’ or brainstorming, which fulfills a function of generating previous ideas.
- Coinstructional strategies. It is the core of the teaching process, the part in which the student accesses the information and in which it is necessary to motivate him and make him maintain constant attention. In them, contents are conceptualized thanks to illustrations, interleaved questions, etc.
- Post-instructional strategies. Here there is room for summaries of the subject, concept maps, analysis of what has been learned and even a critical view of the knowledge that has been acquired. It is the moment in which final doubts are resolved and ways of expanding the already incorporated knowledge are proposed.
In addition to these types of strategies, we can also talk about others aimed at linking new content with other already established ones and others that aim to organize the information that is going to be provided.
The dynamics of teaching is supported by certain strategies:
- Definition of learning objectives.
- Use of summaries.
- Elaboration of illustrations and infographics.
- Orientation with guides.
- Interleaved question turns to retain attention.
- Use of discursive references.
- Establishment of analogies.
- Presentation of concept maps and text structures.
The classic teaching strategy was based on the transmission of knowledge from the teacher to the student, with a special emphasis on memorizing knowledge. The exams are the main source of evaluation and it is a question of a not very critical learning, oriented to objective and measurable results.
However, numerous teaching strategies Alternatives have shown that they are also capable of achieving excellent results. Some are based on the motivation of the student to learn by himself, others give greater importance to the playful component of education and others are committed to a comprehensive development of the child. They are known as methods, and among them we highlight some for their implementation, such as the Waldorf method, the Montessori method or the Sudbury method:
- Waldorf method. Encourages creativity and natural learning through participation in arts subjects and crafts. There are no exams and the contribution of the family environment plays a key role.
- Montessori method. It adapts the learning environment to the degree of development and motivates the student for learning, in such a way that he / she manages to be autonomous. Difference in seven educational groups between 0 and 21 years.
- Sudbury method. It takes advantage of children’s own curiosity, allowing them the freedom to focus on the activities they like the most. Understand learning as fun and motivating.