Researchers define intelligence as “the ability to reason, solve problems, and learn.” Yes, it is a very general definition, but it is that more and more are those who declare themselves in favor of differentiating between several Intelligence types. That is why we are all, at the same time, similar but very different in our reasoning and learning abilities.
Howard Gardner was the first to speak of several multiple intelligences, well differentiated but related to each other. Until the arrival of the ideas of the Harvard psychologist, researcher, and professor, the prevailing thought was that the yardstick for defining someone as intelligent was their academic success. Today we have countless examples of bad students, and even people with little training, with success in business, art and culture or sports. How to explain your achievements?
According to the theory of multiple intelligences, we can differentiate between linguistic-verbal intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, kinesthetic bodily intelligence, musical intelligence, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence and naturalistic intelligence.
We define below, briefly, the different types of intelligence together with the professional profile in which each one is most abundant:
It is characteristic of great speakers, such as politicians, but it is also common in writers, poets or singers. People who have it more developed have a special ability to read, speak, write and actively listen to their interlocutors.
Mathematicians, economists, engineers or scientists have a high capacity for calculation, hypotheses, abstraction or reasoning. In the traditional model, it was the intelligence that was most taken into account, together with the linguistic-verbal, to establish the Intellectual Coefficient (IQ).
Excels in architects, designers, pilots, photographers, film directors or artists, among others. They can perceive visual aspects in great detail, draw or create visual mental images.
Kinesthetic body intelligence
Those who have it more developed have great balance, flexibility, hand-eye coordination and speed. It occurs in individuals who tend to direct their professional steps towards jobs as different as that of actor, surgeon, model, athlete, dancer or sculptor.
Present especially in individuals with the ability to create and study music. It is highly developed by musicians, singers, composers, conductors or music critics.
People with high interpersonal intelligence have a facility to understand the feelings and intentions of others, even if they do not show it openly. That allows them to help others. Psychologists, psychiatrists, pedagogues, teachers or lawyers often have high doses of it.
It is related to the high capacity for self-evaluation of feelings and vital goals that the individual sets for himself. It abounds in the most thoughtful individuals, allowing them to know themselves deeply. It is not associated with any specific profession, so it can occur in several very different ones.
It was the last to be recognized and is the one possessed, to a large extent, by those people capable of seeing the relationships between species and groups of objects and individuals, although they also recognize the differences or similarities between them. It is very present in naturalists, biologists and botanists, among others.
The different Intelligence types They are not watertight compartments, but are combined with each other, since all human beings have them to a greater or lesser extent. In addition, although innate abilities are different in each individual, today it is known that these types of intelligence are, to a large extent, abilities. Therefore, they can be increased if they are developed sufficiently. Sufficient encouragement and instruction are key to achieving growth in any of them.
Educational and labor model
Classical academic training has been in question since the theory of Intelligence typesSince it almost exclusively emphasizes linguistic-verbal intelligence and logical-mathematical intelligence, leaving the others aside.
The awareness of the importance of developing all the skills of the person gains more and more followers in the educational community, which little by little rewards more skills and behaviors that were previously little valued. In reality, it is a logical adaptation to the demands of a full working life, in which many skills come into play.
For example, a teacher will need a high linguistic-verbal intelligence to transmit knowledge, but he will not be a great teacher if he does not develop an interpersonal intelligence that will allow him to empathize with the students and know if they are motivated and if they understand his message.
In the workplace, the ability to solve problems and find solutions to diverse situations requires the use of several Intelligence types, something that people do unconsciously. The good news is that, with effort, these skills can be improved in each individual.
In addition to those described above, emotional intelligence can be distinguished from them. It is the one that greatly facilitates learning, the one that builds self-confidence and the one that allows us to understand both the emotions and the interests of others. The psychologist Daniel Goleman was the great defender of the existence of this type of intelligence. According to him, it is linked to rational intelligence to the point that it is essential to develop both together.
The role of emotional intelligence in the world of work is indisputable. Correct management of it makes us more inclined to resolve conflicts, be creative and constructive and reach agreements. It also helps to better focus working relationships within companies and to set priorities. Emotional intelligence, like the previous eight, can be exercised and trained to improve over time.