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Types of public employees –

marzo 31, 2021

What are public employees?

The Public employees they are workers who provide services or perform functions in public administrations in favor of the general interests.

There are different access routes to work in a public body and not all of them imply passing a selection process (opposition, competition or competition-competition).

What types of public employee are there?

There are four types of public employees. These are classified into:

Career officials

They are people who are linked to a public Administration by a statutory relationship regulated by Administrative Law for the performance of paid professional services of a permanent nature. That is, they have a fixed employment relationship with the Administration and have passed a selective process to occupy a specific position.

Those positions that involve the direct or indirect participation of public powers or the safeguarding of general interests are reserved for this type of public employee.

Career civil servant staff It is classified according to the required qualification in the following groups:

  • Group A. It is divided into two subgroups A1 and A2. To access the bodies or scales of this group it is required to be in possession of a university degree from Grade or the equivalent. In those cases in which the law requires another university degree, this will be taken into account. The classification of bodies and scales in each subgroup is a function of the level of responsibility for the functions to be performed and the characteristics of the entrance exams.

  • B Group. For access to the bodies or ladders of Group B it is required to be in possession of the Title of Advanced technician.

  • Group C. Divided into two subgroups, C1 and C2, according to the degree required for admission. C1: Bachelor or Technician degree. C2: Graduate degree in Compulsory Secondary Education

Acting officials

They are those who, for expressly justified reasons of necessity and urgency, are appointed as such for the performance of functions of career officials, when any of the following circumstances occurs:

  • The existence of vacancies when their coverage by career officials is not possible.
  • The temporary replacement of the holders.
  • The execution of temporary programs.
  • The excess or accumulation of tasks for a maximum period of six months, within a period of twelve months.

Labor staff

Public employees who, with an employment contract formalized in writing, provide services paid by public administrations. This contract can be permanent, indefinite or temporary.

The selection of labor personnel, like career civil servants, is carried out through one of the three selective systems.

Temporary staff

Non-permanent public workers who only perform functions expressly classified as trust or special advice, being paid from the budgetary credits assigned for this purpose. They are freely appointed and terminated and occupy a job not reserved for civil servants.

You can find public job offers in the search engine of calls of the General Access Point of the public Administrations or in the portals of the regional and local Administrations.


Royal Legislative Decree 5/2015, of October 30, which approves the revised text of the Law of the Basic Statute of Public Employees.

If you want to continue learning, learn how to be a career civil servant and the keys to choosing an opposition well. And if you want to know what courses exist to prepare for competitive examinations, you can consult the training offer.