What is an opposition?
A opposition is a selection process to access the positions of public administration work. This selective system is based on the principles of equality, merit and ability and allows people to become public employees.
This process generally involves one or more tests and exams which aim to evaluate the competence of the candidates to access that position. Depending on the score obtained, an order of preference is established.
There are many types of jobs within the Public Administration and of different professional categories, such as: teachers, police, administrative or lawyers. Depending on the category or body to which you want to access, some tests or others will have to be carried out.
The public employment offer it is notified in the Official State Gazette or in the official gazettes of the autonomous communities. Subsequently, the corresponding public body publishes the calls and their bases. These can be called by different types of public administrations:
- International organizations
- State Administration
- Autonomous administrations (autonomous communities or councils)
- Local administrations (municipalities)
To be able to present yourself to an opposition it is necessary that you comply with the requirements that are established in each announcement: training, professional experience, nationality, etc. If you meet all the requirements, successfully pass all the tests of the competitive process and get the best grades, you will be able to get the job.
Another important aspect is the number of places per applicant. In many cases there is great competition, an aspect that makes it difficult to get a place. For this reason, before presenting yourself you have to know in detail the phases of the opposition process and carry out a good preparation of the oppositions.
Keep in mind that, in addition to the opposition, there are other selective processes. Depending on the type of public employee, a different selective system will be used.
Types of selective processes
There are three types of selective processes:
Opposition. In this type of process, one or more than one qualifying test must be carried out, which can be theoretical or practical. .
Competition. The merits of the candidate are taken into account, such as training, work experience and seniority in the Administration. In the bases of the call for the contest appears the list of merits that can be presented and the score that will be obtained for each of them.
Competition-opposition: It is a combination between the two previous processes. The test or tests that are carried out and also the merits of the candidates are taken into account. The specific weight, order and nature of each test or merit will depend on each Administration.
The people who get the highest score in the selection process are the ones who will get the place.
Types of exams for an opposition
In the opposition and competition-opposition processes, depending on the group or category you choose, you will have to take some tests or others. Some types of tests that you may come across are:
- Test. These can be of a more general or more specific agenda. It is a list of questions with different possible answers that you must choose the correct one. In some cases, questions answered incorrectly subtract from the final score.
- Development questions. They are open questions related to the agenda.
- Practical cases. In this type of test, situations are presented to you that you will live in the exercise of the functions of the job to be carried out and how you resolve the situation is evaluated.
- Practical test. It is used to evaluate knowledge and skills in a specific area, such as computer science.
- Physical tests. They are held above all in competitive examinations for special forces: police, firefighters, forestry agents, etc.
- Personal interviews. This test is used to determine the psychological profile of the applicant and learn more about it.
- Psychotechnicians. These are different tests that explore aptitudes, personality, competences, etc. These can be through a test, manipulative tests or open questions.
- Medical examination.
- Language test.